What is A Punch? Introduction of Punching Principles, Types and Materials

A punch, also known as a punch press, is a forming process technology. There are many kinds of it. Due to different structural principles, the price and processing effect will change in response, but they all have the same structure. With the rapid development of the stamping industry, competition in all walks of life has increased. “Punches are also used in various industries, such as aerospace, education, auto parts, diving equipment and so on.

What is A Punch?
A Punch, also known as punching machine, stamping press, is divided into manual and pneumatic. It uses pre-formed dies and pressure to make sheet metal blanks into formed products and parts. Manufacturers use automatic or manual feeders to insert sheet metal into a punch between the die and the die surface. The press descends onto the sheet metal, using the compressive force presses the material into the mold to form the desired shape.

Metal stamping is a versatile punching process that produces accurate, uniform products quickly and efficiently. The process is used for large and small production runs and is often combined with other metalworking processes such as machining, assembly and finishing.

There are many specialized punch techniques that can be used to produce specific effects, including:
Punching: Involves the use of dies and presses to punch holes in a workpiece.
Blanking: The workpiece is punched out of a metal slab.
Embossing: Use raised or indented text, graphics, and designs in sheet metal.
Casting: Similar to embossing, but with raised or indented text, patterns and graphics embossed on both sides of the workpiece.
Bending: Using a bending machine, a force is applied to a metal workpiece, which is bent into a V or U shape from its original axis.
Flanging: The edge of the workpiece around the punched hole is bent at a 90° angle to the sheet, creating an edge around each hole.

The Working Principle of The Punch
The working principle of the punch press mainly converts the rotary motion into linear motion. The main motor provides the power to drive the flywheel. Through the clutch and connecting rod, the flywheel drives the crankshaft or eccentric gear, and converts the surrounding motion into straight line use. transfer point. During operation, the drive structure provides power for the up and down movement of the gate, opening and closing the upper and lower die shoes.

In recent years, in addition to punching processing, various processing modes have emerged, such as 5 Axis CNC Machining Service, vacuum casting, 3D printing, sheet metal processing, etc. In particular, 5-axis processing is more widely used in various industries. Its processing has the advantages of reducing production time and processing time, as well as a single setting function, which can process parts with complex structure and special shape, and is specially used for processing complex surfaces.

During this process, a strip of sheet metal is passed between the die bases, and as the punch moves down, pressure is applied to the sheet metal and a hole is cut, and the separating part falls out of the die opening.

Type of The Punch
Punch processing equipment is usually divided into three types: mechanical, hydraulic and servo. The punching process is further divided into progressive die, transfer die, four-piece stamping and fine blanking.

  1. Mechanical Punch
    Mechanical punches have a motor connected to a mechanical flywheel, which stores energy to help the machine run. These punches can produce punches of various sizes, ranging from 5mm to 500mm, depending on the specific punch used.

Mechanical punches can range in speed as low as 20 beats per minute or as fast as 1500 beats per minute, requiring additional energy at lower speeds and the operator can add an auxiliary flywheel to the drive.

The operator of the mechanical press will use electronic controls, clutches and brakes as needed to help engage and disengage the press drive.

Use of Mechanical Punch: Commonly used to make simple parts made from sheet metal, often used in high-volume production for transfer and incremental punching.

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