As explained by CustomPartNet: Sheet metal cutting processes involve separating a piece of sheet metal by applying sufficient force to cause material failure. These processes are commonly known as shearing processes because they rely on a shearing force. The force applied surpasses the material’s ultimate shear strength, leading to separation at the cut location. Two tools, one above and one below the sheet, apply the shearing force. The upper tool delivers a quick downward blow to the sheet metal resting over the lower tool. A small clearance between the tools allows for material fracture, typically ranging from 2-10% of the material thickness.
Throughout the cut, the shearing effects on the material change and become evident on the cut edge. The clearance between the tools causes the sheet to deform and “rollover” upon impact. As the tool penetrates further, a vertical burnished zone of material forms. Ultimately, the material fractures at an angle, leaving a small burr at the edge. The height of each portion of the cut depends on factors like tool sharpness and clearance.
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