Two major cutting process manufacturers commonly use when cutting material include laser cutting and water jet cutting. Depending on the type of material used and the desired end result, one of these two methods may be appropriate for a given application. First, it is helpful to examine the fundamental differences between the processes and the materials they work well with.
A laser cutter relies on a gas laser, such as a CO2 laser, for energy. The CO2 is then transmitted through a beam, which is guided by mirrors, and directed at the material. With CO2 lasers, the laser source is located inside the machine, and the beam can output between 1500 and 2600 Watts. Materials and applications, as well as precision and safety, are important factors to think about when considering laser cutting.
Materials and Applications
Laser cutters work well with a variety of materials including, plastic, glass, wood, and all metals, such as sheet metal laser cutting (except for reflective metals). If a material combination consists of materials with different melting points, however, it can be rather difficult to cut. Sandwich structures with cavities cannot be cut at all using a CO2 laser, and materials with limited access prove difficult as well. 3D material cutting is also hard to manage because of the rigid beam guidance.
Laser cutters do well with materials that range between 0.12 in and 0.4 in thickness and are commonly used to cut flat sheets of medium thickness steel. Typically, a CO2 laser cutter performs cutting, welding, drilling, engraving, ablation, and structuring.
Precision and Safety
Precision is not an issue with laser cutting, with the minimum size of the cutting slit reaching 0.006 in, depending on the speed of the laser. Thinner workpieces may suffer from gas pressure if the proper distance cannot be maintained, and partial burring does occur. Deformation and minor structural changes can occur as a result of thermal stress, and the cut material will appear striated.
Although safety goggles are not always necessary, laser cutting does produce smoke and dust, and some plastics and metals may produce toxic fumes—proper ventilation is critical. The overall risk involved in working with laser cutting machines is very low, as is the amount of waste produced and subsequent cleanup.
Read more: Laser Cutting Vs. Waterjet Cutting